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A list of words, phrases and terms... all related to dogs.

There are 288 entries in the dog dictionary.
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Term Definition

Veins return blood from the cells from all parts of the body to the heart.Arteries move blood in the direction from the heart to all parts of the body.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is derived mainly from carotene found in plants, but is also present in liver, fish liver oils, and dairy products. Dogs can easily convert carotene into usable vitamin A in the intestines. A is one of the fat soluble vitamins meaning it is stored in the fat cells of the body primarily in the liver. Therefore over supplementing with fish liver oils or feeding diets rich in liver can lead to toxicity, although it is rare. Deficiencies in A however are more common and can lead to night blindness,ovulation problems in females, sterility in males, inferior skin and coat and delayed growth. Insufficient amounts of A in pregnant bitches has been linked to cleft palates in their offspring. Newborns cannot store Vitamin A, but colostrum is very rich in A and there after it is important for healthy development during the growth period.

Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin B Complex is a group of water soluble vitamins that work together and are important for muscle function, brain and nervous system development and the formation of red blood cells. Vitamins in the B Complex group include Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin, Panthotenic Acid, Pyridoxine (B6), Folic Acid (B9), Vitamin B12, and Biotin. B vitamins are not stored in the body therefore it is important that adequate amounts are supplied in the daily diet.

Vitamin B1

Also known as Thiamine, Vitamin B1 helps break down sugars in the body to produce energy and so plays an important role in muscle function. Deficiencies can lead to poor muscle performance exhibited by lack of reflexes and general weakness.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is one of the water soluble vitamins in the B complex group found primarily in meat; especially internal organs and is essential for the development of the nervous system and the production of red blood cells. Dogs deficient in B12 can develop anemia, lethargy, and loss of appetite leading to anorexia. Blood screening is required to verify low levels of B12. It is also known as Cobalamin.

Vitamin B2

Also known as Riboflavin, B2 is important in the production of red blood cells, growth of bones and muscle, and healthy skin and coat. Deficiencies in riboflavin are rarely seen as it is present in a wide variety of foods, but dogs deficient in B12 would exhibit retarded growth and deteriorating skin and coat condition. Riboflavin is found in leafy greens, dairy products, eggs and meats.

Vitamin B3

Also known as Niacin, B3 is one of the water soluble vitamins in the B Complex group and is found primarily in meats. It plays a role in the function of enzymes and so is important in the breaking down of foods into energy. Dogs deficient in niacin develop sores and inflammation in the gums and mouth which leads to loss of appetite and anorexia.

Vitamin B5

Also known as Pantothenic Acid, B6 is a component of certain enzymes that metabolize protein, fats and carbohydrates to produce energy. It is involved in the production of red blood cells and also in the production of adrenal hormones in response to stress, which is why it is given the name the "Stress Vitamin." Good sources of B5 are organ meats, milk, fish and poultry.

Vitamin B6

Also known as Pyridoxine, B6 is one of the water soluble B vitamins in the B Complex group found in many foods including grains, beans, liver, meat, eggs and sweet potatoes. It is easily destroyed in processing and may be diminished in frozen foods. It is used by the body to metabolize amino acids and lipids, and is involved in the production of certain hormones. Consequently, Dogs fed higher protein diets need more B6 to metabolize the amino acids. B6 is important to the health of nerve cell endings that transmit and receive impulses between nerves and so is vital to the development of the nervous system. Prolonged deficiency in B6 can lead to retarded growth, dermatitis, bald spots and general loss of coat, as well as anemia, muscle weakness and epilepsy.

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9 is known as Folic Acid in the synthetic supplement form, and is called Folate in the naturally occuring form found in the body.It is one of the water soluble vitamins in the B Complex group that is essential for the production of red blood cells, important in the formation of DNA and RNA, and involved in rapid cell division; all of which makes it a very important vitamin during the pregnancy of the Bitch. Natural sources of B9 include organ meats, egg yolks, milk and some vegetables. Deficiency in Folic Acid quickly leads to anemia.

Vitamin C

Unlike Humans, Dogs have the ability to make vitamin C internally to meet their requirements and do not need additional supplementation. Half of the vitamin C consumed is converted to oxalic acid and must be excreted through the kidneys. There is some concern that elevated levels of oxalates can lead to the formation of crystals in the urinary tract. Supplementing with vitamin C may also interfere with the liver's natural ability to produce C and effect liver function. On the other hand, vitamin C is important to the growth of collagen and connective tissue and is administered at higher levels as a treatment for hip dysplasia,arthritis, or joint injuries and may have beneficial anti oxidant influence. Definitely discuss with your veterinarian the pros and cons of supplementing your dog with vitamin C.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is central to regulating the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood and is therefore important to bone formation. Not enough D can lead to rickets, which is a weakening and malformation of the bones. In humans, sunlight is important to convert D to a usable form for the body, but Dogs must have D added to their diets to ensure healthy skeletal formation, especially during the first 2 years of their life. D is one of the fat soluble vitamins meaning that it is stored and accumulates in the fat cells. Over supplementing with D through vitamin additives can lead to toxcity in excessive doses.

Vitamin E

Tocopherols are a group of compounds referred to on dog food labels as mixed tocopherols and include alpha,beta, delpha and gamma tocopherols. Although alpha-tocopherol provides the most available and stable vitamin E component,they must all be combined to provide all the essential parts of the Vitamin E group. Vitamin E is an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and is very effective in treating various skin disorders.E is also central to the development of healthy cell membranes and cell respiration. Vegetable oils especially safflower, and wheat germ are the main source of naturally occuring tocopherols.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K stimulates the liver to produce active blood coagulants. It is produced naturally by intestinal bacteria to promote blood clotting. Dogs that consume rat poison have their vitamin K depleted and can hemorrage and die without medical intervention. Vitamin K injections can be given by a veterinarian to counteract the blood thinning effects of the poison. Dogs with liver and intestinal disease may need vitamin K supplementation.

Von Willebrand Disease

A Dog with Von Willebrand Disease or (vWD) does not have enough of a certain protein in the blood that is necessary for normal clotting, causing the Dog to bleed excessively when injured or undergoing surgery. Unexpected bleeding from the nose or extended bleeding from a minor injury is often the first indication that a Dog is affected by Von Willebrand Disease. It is an inherited disorder. There are 3 classifications of vWD depending on the severity, Type 1, Type 2, or Type 3; Type 1 being the mildest form and also the most common expression of the disease. It is often seen in the Doberman Pinscher. A genetic test is available through VetGen laboratories which can indicate if a Dog is a carrier, or will be affected by the disease, or is completely clear. There is no cure for Von Willebrand Disease.


The Vulva is the external visible opening of the female reproductive tract.

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